Cigarette smoking is associated with infertility, pregnancy loss, and IVF failure. Up to 13% of female infertility is caused by cigarette smoking. Women who smoke experience decreased fertility and higher risk of miscarriage. There is strong evidence that nicotine has a significant negative impact on fertility. Smokers add 10 years to their reproductive ages – a 25-year-old smoker has the same reproductive potential as a 35-year-old nonsmoker.
Cigarette smoke contains many harmful components that can adversely affect fertility, including maturation of follicles, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesis (development of blood vessels in the lining of the uterus), uterine blood flow, and uterine myometrium.
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